At the ARVO annual meeting, there is an increasing number of contributions that involve significant mathematical modeling of ocular physiology and procedures. There has long been significant use of statistical methods for understanding data from a variety of in vivo measurements and clinical trials. Beyond these important uses of statistical and mathematical tools, a growing number of researchers are developing mathematical and computational models, often based on fundamental principles from physics, chemistry and mechanics, that provide insights into ocular phenomena. A number of areas had noticeable contributions involving applications of models, such as tear production, tear film dynamics, corneal biomechanics, retinal blood flow, and glaucoma. We list a number of such contributions in this introduction and follow those with five extended abstracts that summarize some of the studies mentioned here.